Bottom load machine – Product is loaded vertically up through the open flaps on the bottom of a case.

Basis weight – Weight of various containers given in pounds per 1,000 sq ft.

Boxmaker’s Certificate – Statement printed on a corrugated or solid fiberboard box guaranteeing that all applicable construction requirements of the carriers have been met. Also identifies the box maker.

CSO (Center Special Overlap Slotted Container) – All flaps are the same length; inner flaps meet, and outer flaps overlap at random.

CSSC (Center Special Slotted Container) – Inner and outer flaps meet at center.

Containerboard – The paperboard components (linerboard, corrugating material, filler chip) used to manufacture corrugated and solid fiberboard.

Corrugated board –  Board consisting of two outer plies that sandwich a fluted middle layer.

Cycle – Process by which product package or container moves from station to station in accumulator or main machine. (see Station or Pockets)

Double wall – A combination of three flat facings and two intermediate corrugated parts.

Enclosure types – Electrical connection protection level for the operating environment. (see the basic NEMA Ratings)

Facings –  A form of linerboard used as flat members of corrugated fiberboard.

Fiber or fiberboard box –  A container made of either corrugated or solid fiberboard; fiberboard is fabricated paperboard (three or more plies of walls).

Flute or corrugation – One of the wave shapes in the inner part of combined corrugated fiberboard.

Flutes per linear foot   Approximate height
(not inclduing facing thickness)
A-Flute 33+3 3/16 inch
B-Flute 47+3 3/32 inch
C-Flute 39+ 9/64 inch
E-Flute 90+4 3/64 inch

FOL (Full Overlap Slotted Container) – All flaps same length; outer flaps overlap not less than inside width of box minus a maximum of one inch.

HSC (Half Slotted Container) – a case style with bottom flaps and no top flaps.

Hand, machine –  Left-hand machine means accumulator is on left side of main machine when looking in the flow direction, and conveyor is on right side of main machine discharge.

Horizontal machine –  Product is loaded (horizontally pushed) into the side or end of a carton, case, or tray.

In-line machine –  Main machine is placed lengthwise in the same direction as the conveyor delivering product.

Knocked-Down (KD) –  A term denoting that a carton, case, or tray is partly or entirely taken apart; not set up.

Liner (sleeve) – A creased fiberboard sheet inserted in a container and covering all side walls.

Manufacturer’s joint – The joint is that part of the box where the ends of the scored and slotted blank are joined by tapping, stitching, or gluing. When finished in the box manufacturer’s plant, it is known as a manufacturer’s joint; when the box flaps are sealed in a box-user’s plant (usually on automatic equipment), it is called a “user’s joint.”

NEMA Ratings – Rating scale for measuring the level of protection for electrical connections given the operating environment.

NEMA 1 – General purpose; indoor usage; no unusual service conditions.

NEMA 2 – Drip-proof; indoor usage; protect against noncorrosive liquids and dirt.

NEMA 3/3R – Dust-tight; rain-tight and sleet (ice)-resistant; outdoor usage; protects against windblown dust and water.

NEMA 4 – Watertight and dust-tight; indoor and outdoor usage; protects against splashing water, water seepage, falling or hose-directed water, severe external condensation.

NEMA 4X – Watertight, dust-tight, and corrosion-resistant; indoor and outdoor usage; see NEMA 4 above plus corrosion protection.

NEMA 7/9 – Explosion-resistant; indoor hazardous locations; airbrake equipment to protect against entrance of explosive amounts of hazardous dust.

NEMA 12 – Dust-tight and drip-tight; indoor industrial usage; protects against fibers, filings, lint, dust, dirt, light splashing or seepage, dripping, and external condensation of noncorrosive liquids.

NEMA 13 – Oil-tight and dust-tight; indoor usage; houses limit switches, foot switches, pushbuttons, selector switches, pilot lights, etc. to protect against lint, dust, seepage, external condensation, and spraying of water, oil, or coolant.

Orientation – How a product is delivered to an infeed conveyor, discharge conveyor, or loaded into a container—e.g. largest dimension perpendicular or parallel to flow; largest dimension perpendicular or parallel to case length, width, or depth. Product length, width, and depth are relative to how it loads into the case.

Overlaps – A design feature where the top and/or bottom flaps (usually outer only) extend over the other. Overlap is measured from flap edge to flap edge and is known as partial or full overlapping flaps.

Pocket – Space reserved in main machine to do one of the following operations: case select, case erect, case fold, case load, case flap tuck, case seal, case seal compress. Some of these operations can be done in the same horizontal space under certain conditions (slow speed, small product, smaller footprint needed). Product is passed from one pocket to another by pushers.

RSC (Regular Slotted Container) – All flaps same length; outer flaps meet.

Single face – A combination of one corrugated part glued to one flat facing.

Single wall – Also known as double face. A combination of one corrugated inner part glued between two flat facings.

Standard test conditions – Tests on paperboard and boxes are normally done at 730F and 50% RH + or 2.5%; high humidity is temperatures above 730F at 85% RH; cold storage is below 400F at 85% RH; tropical storage is above 900F at 90% RH.

Station – Divisions within the main machine that mechanically perform functions necessary to erect, fold, load, tuck, glue or tape, and seal a container. These stations can be combined under certain circumstances into multipurpose units. (see Pockets)

Test – Bursting strength of linerboard and combined board except for those grades of corrugated fiberboard where a puncture test is substituted for bursting strength. There are many kinds of tests done depending on environment.

Top load machine –  Product accumulated and loaded vertically downward into the open flaps at the top of a case.

Triple wall – A combination of four flat facings and three intermediate corrugated parts.

Wraparound case blank –  A pre-scored and pre-slotted sheet of corrugated fiberboard that is formed into a box around its contents. Advantages are that less board is required, it can be fully automated, it produces a very tight pack, it increases column strength and pallet efficiencies, there is greater magazine capacity, and there is no manufacturer’s joint (user’s joint instead), and no ridges on shipping surface.

This glossary was adapted from a handbook by Schneider Packaging Equipment.

Cartoning, Multipacking & Case Packing

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